Altered Breathing Patterns

Test your knowledge on altered breathing patterns and their possible consequences.


Chaitlow, L. (2004)  Breathing pattern disorders, motor control, and low back pain. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 7 (1): 34-41.

Chaitow L.  (2014) Recognizing and Treating Breathing Pattern Disorders.  A Multidisciplinary approach.  Churchill Livingstone

Courtney R., (2009) The function of breathing and its dysfunctions and their relationship to breathing therapy.  International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine.12;78-85.

Karp, J., Smith, C.,(2012) Running for Women. Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics.

Shoulder Bursitis Quiz

Outcome:  This patient was referred back to the Physician for evaluation.  The fact that she was having constant pain which was worse at night was one reason.  Yes, bursitis pain is often worse at night and they will often have an empty endfeel into elevation but she had an empty endfeel in all passive ranges of her left shoulder.  Her key muscles or myotomes which test the nerve roots of the Cervical spine were weak at three levels.  One is acceptable, more than one in the UE is not.

Her Physician called and advised me that her ultimate diagnosis was a metastatic invasion of the cervical roots from a Pancoast tumor.

Differential Diagnosis of the Spine is available on Amazon in kindle and soft cover editions.

Differential Diagnosis of the Spine                                          



Temporal Arteritis



Both of these conditions are caused by inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply the head, neck, upper body and arms. It occurs almost exclusively in individuals that are over the age of 50 with the disease increasing in incidence with progressive aging. It is more prevalent in people from the Scandinavian countries and regions settled by Northern Europeans. It most commonly occurs in the arteries around the temples (temporal arteries that branch off the carotid artery in the neck. The cause of the condition is unknown. It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to some infections and to certain genes. The problem may develop with or follow another inflammatory disorder called Polymyalgia Rheumatica.
Symptoms can include a throbbing headache on one side of the head or back of the head, tenderness of the scalp especially the temporal region, fever, malaise, jaw pain with chewing, pain in the arm after use, muscle aches, pain and stiffness in the neck, upper arms and hips, weakness and fatigue. Blurred and or double vision can occur. Reduced vision and blindness can occur. A cough, tongue or throat pain, hearing loss, and joint stiffness are also possible.

Micrograph of Giant Cell Arteritis By Nephron (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Takayasu Arteritis is the inflammation of the Aorta and is a rarer type of vasculitis. The disease can lead to blockages or narrowed arteries (stenosis) or abnormally dilated arteries (aneurysms). Takayasu’s arteritis can also lead to arm or chest pain and high blood pressure and eventually to heart failure or stroke.

Differential Diagnosis of the Spine available on Amazon in kindle and soft cover editions